A neurologist is a type of doctor that specializes in diagnosing and treating medical conditions that concern the nervous system. Neurology is a sector of medicine that studies conditions that affect the nervous system. Neurologists are also interested in how to treat these conditions. 

The nervous system consists of two principal parts. Those are:

  1. The Central Nervous System, also known as CNS. The CNS consists of the brain and the spine, the primary organs of the nervous system
  2. The Peripheral Nervous System, also known as PNS. The PNS consists of all the nerves outside of the CNS. 

As you can see, the nervous system accounts for a vast number of human biological functions. So, what are the specific medical conditions that a neurologist treats? 

This article will uncover what a neurologist can diagnose and provide you more information on these diagnoses and processes.

What Can A Neurologist Diagnose?

A neurologist diagnoses and treats a multitude of neurological conditions. 

These conditions consist of: 

  • Stroke
  • Epilepsy
  • Headaches
  • Migraines
  • Sleep disorders
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Brain tumors
  • Brain aneurysms
  • Autism

Although this is a long list, there are a few conditions neurologists commonly diagnose. These include headaches, back and neck pain, numbness, nerve problems, and dementia.

Let’s explore these in more detail below.


First, headaches, they may seem like a normal problem that most people experience. However, severe and frequent headaches are something that neurologists do diagnose and treat. Especially if you get migraines, a visit to a neurologist may be a good idea.

Back And Neck Pain

Secondly, you may be wondering why is it that you have back and neck pain? The spinal column is located in our backs and neck. 

Well, pain in our backs or neck may affect our spine, and it may be something that a neurologist can help us with.

Numbness And Nerve Problems

Third, patients who experience a chronic or acute sensation of numbness. Numbness may indicate that something is wrong with your nerves. 

Moreover, numbness can be a warning sign of serious and even fatal conditions such as a stroke. 

Movement and mobility issues can also be addressed by a neurologist. For example, you can visit a neurologist if you experience difficulty in walking, tremors and unintentional jerks, and/or feet shuffling. Any of these conditions may show that something is wrong with your nervous system. 

Vision loss or other sensory difficulties can also be something that a neurologist can take care of. However, typically they can specialize in touch, vision, smell, and taste. Auditory issues are better suited to an otolaryngologist (also called ENT).


Finally, neurologists diagnose, treat, and create treatment plans for dementia patients. Dementia is a condition in which one of the symptoms is memory loss. The most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease. 

However, you must visit the right neurologist for each of these conditions.

What are the Different Types of Neurologists?

Each type of neurologist specializes in different kinds of neurological conditions. Here are the types of neurologists:

  • Clinical neurophysiologists diagnose and treat nerve disorders.
  • Vascular neurologists specialize in the brain’s circulatory system.
  • Neurologists for palliative care and pain management address patients with neurological pain.
  • Neurodevelopmental and neuromuscular neurology see patients with neurological conditions that affect their development and patients with neuromuscular diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 
  • Pediatric neurologists focus on training the special neurological needs of children.

And there you have it! We hope this article provided an answer to what a neurologist can diagnose and provided you with useful information.

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